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By the time the Mongols are first mentioned in the accounts of the

"During the period of decline, many Khazars converted to Islam or Christianity, but some, who remained Jews, migrated westward, and are historically documented in several East European countries and cities, including Kiev.

Function As The First To See What The Experts Assert About Matador Photo Essay

It is for this reason, that history associates the Mongols with a mixture of heathenism, Christianity, Buddhism, and Islamic, as they adopted the culture and politics of the communities they came into contact.

Though the Mongols often spared the lives of famed scholars -whom

A military History of Modern Egypt: from the Ottoman Conquest to the Ramadan War.

On pages 154-155 he writes: "We have exposedthe weaknesses of the Khazar hypothesis and the fact that it stands onwobbly scholarly foundations without || historical support." Does it, infact, have all of the weaknesses that Rosensweig claims that it does?

Forinstance, Nicholas de Lange, in (1984),on page 43 writes: "The Khazar kingdom contained many different ethnic andreligious groups, and there is no evidence of a substantial Jewish elementamong the population.

Outraged by the audacity of the still little-known Mongol

Again and again, the Mongols used their

"It is even possible that Jewish survivors of the Khazar kingdom near the Caspian Sea made their way to Poland after that kingdom's destruction during the thirteenth century Mongol invasions."

- Lloyd P.

|| Meanwhile, in the very same years that the defeated Jewish Khazars - and there was a second Khazar Diaspora following the Mongol invasion of the area in the thirteenth century - were finding new homes in southern Russia, another group of Jews, numerically much larger, were being driven out of their homes, along the river Rhine."

- Martin Gilbert, in (New York, NY: Schocken, 2002), pages 147-148.

After impressing upon his sons the dangers of quarreling among
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One after another, the Mongol armies defeated the often much

According to some historians, many of them are descended from the Khazars, a people who ruled much of the Volga-Dnieper basin the seventh to ninth centuries and converted to Judaism en masse in the eighth century.

Novgorod again braced itself for the Mongol

That, however, those among theKhazars who adopted Judaism as their religion came to form a part of theUkrainian component of eastern European Jews, and eventually to beassimilated by it, can hardly be doubted on the basis of our present stateof knowledge."

- Norman Golb and Omeljan Pritsak, in (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982), page xv.

On the other hand, Mongol overlordship cut Russia off

But the cumulative evidence makes one inclined to agree withthe concensus of Polish historians that 'in earlier times the main bulkoriginated from the Khazar country'; and that, accordingly, the Khazarcontribution to the genetic make-up of the Jews must be substantial, andin all likelihood dominant."

- Arthur Koestler, in (London: Hutchinson, 1976 and New York, NY: Random House, 1976), page 180.

But the Mongols still did not occupy most of the Qin domains or

Historian Abraham Elijahu Harkavi maintains that they camefrom Babylonia and elsewhere in the Near East in the ninth and tenthcenturies C.E., after the decline of the Jewish communities there.

The Mongols returned in force, making short work of the rump state

"It is clear, however, that the influence of the Jews, who had become themost active agents of the commerce of the Caliphate, was substantial inthe Khazar kingdom, and it is probable that the commonly observedmongoloid type among East European Jews, particularly in the Ukraine,Poland and Roumania, derives from the conversions and intermarriages whichwere no doubt frequent in the swarming trading camps of the Khaqans."

- W.

Much to the dismay of Mongol purists fresh from the steppes, Kubilai

And, to the present day, the Mongoloidfeatures common amongst the Jews of eastern Europe are, in allprobability, a heritage from these 'proselytes of righteousness' of tencenturies ago."

- Cecil Roth, in (London: Horovitz [East and West Library], 1959), page 288.

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