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The African American Civil Rights Movement History Essay
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Historically, the Civil Rights Movement was a time during the 1950’s and 60’s to eliminate segregation and gain equal rights.
On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks (1913–2005) refused to move from her seat on a Montgomery, Alabama, bus to make room for whites. She became widely known as the "mother of the Civil Rights movement."
The Civil Rights Movement :: Black Civil Rights Movement
The early 1960s saw civil rights veterans and union organizers joining students to both train people in the discipline of nonviolence and reproduce sit-ins across the country. Under the inspiration of Ella Baker, the SCLC sponsored the founding of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). In 1961 members of SNCC and CORE joined forces to reignite Freedom Rides in the South as a way to test the 1955 Browder decision that officially outlawed segregated interstate transportation. Students faced an overwhelming flourish of violent attacks by whites. Activists were beaten, riders were caught in burning buses, and it was all broadcast across the world. Freedom Riders had achieved success, but white resistance was resilient.
James Meredith defiantly enrolled at the University of Mississippi in 1962, provoking a vital power struggle between states rights and federal power. Governor Ross Barnett flaunted the dictates of federal law until President Kennedy was pushed to mount a federal military occupation of 31,000 troops to enforce the law. The movement pushed forward and began to focus on the important terrain of voter registration in 1961 and 1962. Harvard graduate student Robert Moses, local volunteer Henry Lee, executive director of the Mississippi NAACP, local activist Fannie Lou Hamer, and Medgar Evers, who pushed to enroll Meredith at the university and investigated the death of Till, played significant roles in voter registration. For their efforts both Lee and Evers were murdered and Hammer and her husband were beaten and lost their jobs, but a voting campaign had been established.
The Civil Rights Movement: Major Events and Legacies | …
Hill, Lance. 2004. The Deacons for Defense: Armed Resistance and the Civil Rights Movement. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Colby, David. 1987. “White Violence and the Civil Rights Movement.” Pgs. 31-48 in Blacks in Southern Politics, edited by L. Moreland, R. Steed, and T. Baker. New York: Praeger.
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The Civil Rights Movement: Major Events and Legacies
Historians generally agree that Civil Rights Movement began with the Montgomery bus boycott in 1955 and ended with the passing of the Voting Rights Act in 1965.
Essay on the Civil Rights Movement - Blog | Ultius
While various self-styled KKK organizations took hold across the South in response to the 1954 Brown school desegregation decision, it was not until 1963 that Mississippi saw any significant civil rights-era Klan mobilization. That fall, an organizer for the Louisiana-based Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan arrived in Natchez, recruiting approximately 300 Mississippians to his organization. When an ensuing controversy over the misuse of KKK funds led to the expulsion of Original Knights’ state officer Douglas Byrd, he promptly recruited two-thirds of the group’s Mississippi membership into a new state organization, the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (WKKKK). By year’s end, the White Knights’ terroristic agenda was front-page news nationally, cementing the group’s reputation as the most rabidly violent KKK organization of the civil rights era.
American Civil Rights Movement Essay - 15814 Words
This was due to the revival of the Harlem Renaissance and the Civil Rights Movement, which began with the courageous actions of one woman in Montgomery, Alabama....
The Civil Rights Movement In The Usa History Essay
Robert F. Williams was president of the Monroe, North Carolina, chapter of the NAACP. But his frustration with nonviolent protest stemmed not from a preference for courtroom battles. He advocated armed self-defense, responding to white violence with bullets and barricades. Williams looked out over America's social landscape and saw little recourse in nonviolent protest or legal statutes. As a case in point, the federal government passed the first Civil Rights Act in 1957, but it was hardly enforced. Williams was part of a growing body of activists from within traditional organizations who were critical of both nonviolence and top-down leadership approaches from the start. Their presence reveals that the meaning of civil rights activism was not set in stone but constantly contested and reconstructed.
The Civil Rights Movement - The New York Public Library
These differing organizational orientations extended in complicated ways to the question of KKK violence. Bowers had always been clear that his group would not shy away from the use of force, and throughout the summer of 1964 the White Knights engaged in an intensive terror campaign, which included the burning and bombing of dozens of black churches and homes as well as the Moore and Dee murders in Franklin County and the killings of three civil rights workers in Neshoba County. Alleged failures to provide adequate legal and financial support to implicated klansmen meant that, over time, Bowers became increasingly vulnerable to criticism from his rank-and-file membership. Shelton exploited this vulnerability directly, by contacting UKA klaverns to raise money for WKKKK defendants. He also publicly promoted the UKA’s nonviolent approach during rallies and in media interviews. A typical rationale for a move to the UKA was offered by Adams County Sheriff Odell Anders (himself a suspected WKKKK member), who noted that the many klavern members he knew who opposed violence favored defecting from the White Knights to a more palatable Klan alternative.
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