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Joan of arc persuasive essay 2 stack pda formal definition essay
In a comment on the film, still available online at the (February 16, 1997) web page featuring Roger Ebert's commentary, Roger Ebert notes some of the film's history—Dreyer seeing Falconetti in a stage comedy and perceiving her soul, and doing a screen test and having that confirmed, seeing, as Ebert says, "a woman who embodied simplicity, character, and suffering." Ebert also reports some of the actual history of Joan and her twenty-nine cross-examinations before she was burned in 1431, and the significant budget and the screenplay Dreyer had been given for the film (the film was produced by Societe Generale de Films; and Dreyer did not use the screenplay). Like Rudolf Arnheim, Ebert remarks that there "is not a single establishing shot in all of , which is filmed entirely in close-ups and medium shots, creating fearful intimacy between Joan and her tormentors. Nor are there easily read visual links between shots." Whereas Arnheim found this problematic, others, such as Ebert, see this as innovative, as Dreyer's way of achieving a psychological and spiritual dimension. "I think he wanted to avoid the picturesque temptations of a historical drama," posits Ebert. Ebert notes the rigors of Dreyer's on-set filmmaking as well, the demands for playing scenes again and again, for expressing and stripping away emotion. Falconetti, who died in 1946 in Argentina, never made another film. (That would sound suitably mythic, except that it has been reported that before her appearance in Dreyer's film Falconetti was in two obscure films of 1917, directed by Maurice de Feraudy and directed by Georges Denola and Jean Kemm, and following her appearance in Dreyer's film, she did return to producing stage comedies, and even appeared with the celebrated Comedie Francaise. During the last century's second world war, Falconetti left France for Switzerland and then Argentina, where she lived until her death.)
In the film , in the torture chamber, the clerics present Joan with a confession to sign. She doesn't sign it. Massieu (Artaud) is pleased. The lead judges say that she will be alone; and she says, "Alone with God." They point to the torture devices—shocking instruments of cruelty, which raise all sorts of questions about the minds, spirits, and wills of men who could create or use such things then or now. The men demonstrate some of the devices. It is a sadistic display. "I'll never confess, and if I do, I'll say I was forced," Joan says, before fainting.
Top Joan Of Arc Persuasive Essay Reviews!
I do not laugh at your oaths nor jeer you;)
The President holding a cabinet council is surrounded by the great
On the piazza walk three matrons stately and friendly with twined arms,
The crew of the fish-smack pack repeated layers of halibut in the hold,
The Missourian crosses the plains toting his wares and his cattle,
As the fare-collector goes through the train he gives notice by the
jingling of loose change,
The floor-men are laying the floor, the tinners are tinning the
roof, the masons are calling for mortar,
In single file each shouldering his hod pass onward the laborers;
Seasons pursuing each other the indescribable crowd is gather'd, it
is the fourth of Seventh-month, (what salutes of cannon and small arms!)
Seasons pursuing each other the plougher ploughs, the mower mows,
and the winter-grain falls in the ground;
Off on the lakes the pike-fisher watches and waits by the hole in
the frozen surface,
The stumps stand thick round the clearing, the squatter strikes deep
with his axe,
Flatboatmen make fast towards dusk near the cotton-wood or pecan-trees,
Coon-seekers go through the regions of the Red river or through
those drain'd by the Tennessee, or through those of the Arkansas,
Torches shine in the dark that hangs on the Chattahooche or Altamahaw,
Patriarchs sit at supper with sons and grandsons and great-grandsons
In walls of adobie, in canvas tents, rest hunters and trappers after
their day's sport,
The city sleeps and the country sleeps,
The living sleep for their time, the dead sleep for their time,
The old husband sleeps by his wife and the young husband sleeps by his wife;
And these tend inward to me, and I tend outward to them,
And such as it is to be of these more or less I am,
And of these one and all I weave the song of myself.
It is possible to see the gorgeous music that accompanied the film screening I attended as an unnecessary embellishment, as going against the spare quality that Dreyer seemed to want in his film, but Dreyer once said that "When the music really has meaning or an artistic intention, it will always be a plus for the film" ("A Little on Film Style," 1943, ; 141). Reviewing the Winter Garden's "Voices of Light" program featuring Dreyer's film and Richard Einhorn's music for (February 18, 2006), Anthony Tommasini noted the "wonderfully restored print" and wrote, "‘Voices of Light' has a libretto of Latin and French texts assembled by Mr. Einhorn. Anonymous 4 sing quotations of Joan's words from the transcript of her trial for blasphemy in 1431. The chorus and soloists sing a patchwork of writings from medieval mystics, mostly women. Mr. Einhorn's sensitive score deftly shifts styles from evocations of neomedieval counterpoint to wistful modal murmurings over droning pedal tones, from bursts of Minimalistic repetitions to moments of piercing modern harmony." The story of Joan, with its element of tragedy: the fulfillment of an individual's purpose leading to her destruction, when projected on a silent white screen, is lent by the music—and the rows of dark-clad singers and musicians—an evocation of church, opera, and performance art. The event has an aspect of ritual, but the film reminds us of an early sense of the word passion—not love or lust, but suffering. Often when a story, a work, or an artist, is well-known, one's knowledge becomes antagonistic: one's awareness of method and style makes impossible seeing what unfolds as the little accidents one might take for nature; then, instead of focusing on what is done, one has to consider how well it is done. The answer regarding Carl Theodor Dreyer's and Richard Einhorn's music in "Voices of Light" is that it is done very well.
Joan of Arc, history homework help - …
Paul Schrader in his book wrote that "Yasujiro Ozu in Japan, Robert Bresson in France, to a lesser degree Carl Dreyer in Denmark, and other directors in various countries have forged a remarkably common film form. This common form was not determined by the film-makers' personalities, culture, politics, economics, or morality. It is instead the result of two universal contingencies: the desire to express the Transcendent in art and the nature of the film medium. In the final result no other factors can give this style its universality" (Univ. of Calif. Press, 1972; 3). Transcendent art, rather than expressing or illustrating holy feelings, expresses the holy itself. However, Schrader felt that in suggesting the possibility of psychological and social causes and interpretations, rather than purely spiritual or divine ones, and for allowing the viewer to experience a certain ambivalence, Dreyer is not strictly following a transcendental style. It is, of course, these nuances that make Dreyer's film about Joan of Arc more believable and compelling. Joan lived and acted in the world, not in a purely spiritual realm, and there hardly can be a more human or worldly endeavor than a contest between nations, war. Transcendental style, more primitive than classical, affirms the irrational over the rational, the abstract over the optical, and two-dimensional vision over three, for example. (Schrader also does not seem to recognize a fundamental problem, if not flaw, with most art that assumes a religious theme or meaning: the improbable existence of divinity. How can art, character, practice, or meaning be authorized by a source that cannot itself be corroborated?) Schrader himself notes the evocation and power of the everyday in the film. Schrader writes, "Joan reacts emotionally to her hostile environment, but she also reacts spiritually to an external dimension. She does not only see her inquisitors as political pawns or demonic gorgons (as the camera sees them), but she also considers them representatives of the other world sent to torture and test her. She accuses them of being emissaries of the devil…" (125). Conflict is a fundamental trait of Dreyer's vision, and comparable to gothic architecture in its tensions, its balance of nature and style, its lights and shadows, angels and gargoyles (138-147).
I know that some people, many people, see Joan's accusers as grotesque, as inhuman, but I do not. They are formidable in their focus and fury, and in their determination of her fate, but what makes them so terrible is that their logic is understandable, their suspicions not far from the usual suspicions society has of individuals who claim a great destiny, and their sacrifice of her for the maintenance of authority, doctrine, and communal peace is the typical rending of a scapegoat. Dreyer himself said, "In both and I have consciously tried to remain impartial. The clergy in the two films did indeed condemn Joan and the harmless old witch to the stake, but it was not because they were evil and cruel. They were only caught up in the religious conceptions of that time. When they tortured their victims in order to force a confession from them, it was because the confession insured the accused eternal life" (Dreyer in , Da Capo Press, 1991; 145).
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Joan Of Arc Catholic SS - SJA Essay and Research Guide
(), starring Renee Maria Falconetti as the inspired young peasant woman warrior, directed by Denmark's Carl Theodor Dreyer (1889-1968), is a black-and-white silent film that has long been acclaimed a classic. Dreyer's film is based on the actual transcripts of the trial of Jeanne d'Arc, adapted by Dreyer and Joseph Delteil. It is often interesting to see a work considered a classic and to ask, Why? Are the values that established its worth still applicable today? Are the pleasures or profundities it offered yesterday still available today? I was lucky enough to see the film at a free screening in the Winter Garden of the World Financial Center, on a recent cold February evening. The film was accompanied by the music of composer Richard Einhorn, performed by The Ensemble Sospeso, Anonymous 4, The New Amsterdam Singers, and four vocal soloists, including Susan Narucki, Janice Meyerson, Mark Bleeke, and Kevin Deas, all conducted by David Hattner. It was one of those casually elegant events that Manhattan does very well. The Winter Garden, with its glass atrium, tall palm trees, portable black seats, and green garden seats built for three, was host to a few hundred people who had come for the film, or the music, or both. I had, in about the seventh row from the front, an aisle garden seat, shared by an older married couple, and my sight lineswere clear (some viewing was obscured by the palm trees). Various introductions weremade by people associated with the music production, such as WNYC Radio's John Schaefer,who curated the event as part of a series called New Sounds Live, and also the music composer Richard Einhorn. We were told that the film had been made in 1927 (I'd read it was 1928. Is that the difference between when it was filmed and when it was first shown?). We were told that the original film had burned in a warehouse fire, and thatCarl Dreyer reconstructed it from negative outtakes but that version too was destroyedin a fire. Subsequently, decades later (1981), a print of the original film was located in an insane asylum, in a janitor's closet, and a copy of that print is what we would be seeing. It was also mentioned, rather irrelevantly I thought, that both Dreyer and Falconetti had spent time in a madhouse, and Dreyer's was named for Jeanne d'Arc. Being mad, like being demonic, which Jeanne d'Arc was accused of, often means simply that one cannot become reconciled to other people's sense of reality or value. It's more important to note that Dreyer's films include (), , , , and , and each is of these is considered important in the history of cinema, with considered the central masterpiece in his oeuvre.
Essay Every Day: Joan of Arc and Christianity
The history of Jeanne d'Arc, as I understand it: Jeanne d'Arc (1412-1431), also known as Joan of Arc, an uneducated French peasant girl, began to hear what she claimed were voices—and believed were the voices of saints Catherine, Margaret, and Michael. Her lack of education and her devotion to religion may have meant that her thoughts were filled with religious matter and meaning, and these she heard as voices. France and England had been at war for about a hundred years. The so-called One Hundred Years' War would last from 1337 to 1453, and was begun over the countries' involvement in each other's economies and cultures, including the production of cloth and wine, and England's dependence on France's wine country for its wealth. The English king was the duke of France's Aquitaine region; and the English were claiming the right to the French throne. The reality of France's domination by the English was Joan's context (her family and townsmen fled from raiders), and when seen through the eyes of a religious perspective, that may have influenced Joan's sense of mission. Joan said that the saints' voices compelled her to fight for France against the English who then controlled much of it. She, about seventeen, traveled from where she lived in northern France, in Domremy, to see in Chinon the deceased French king's son, the dauphin, Charles, who had her tested by theologians before he gave her the authority of his army. He gave her a sword and white armor. How persuasive she must have been; or how superstitious must have been everyone else. Orleans, about eighty miles from Paris, had been under siege for eight months, but in eight days she broke that siege, inspiring her men with her courage; and thus she became known as the maid of Orleans. She was able to capture, in northern France, the town of Reims (also: Rheims), where French kings were traditionally crowned: and the dauphin was crowned king. The king then decided to negotiate, though Joan wanted to fight until the English were defeated. Joan, during a subsequent battle, was captured by Frenchmen involved with the English, the Burgundians, and they sold her to the English. (The Duke of Burgundy wanted himself to be king of France or to gain property. The University of Paris, also, welcomed her capture, according to historian Regine Pernoud.) The English refused to believe that a girl could have defeated them and decided that she was some kind of sorceress. They wanted her to renounce her voices and her soldier's clothing. She signed a statement she could not read, a statement that was used as evidence against her. Abandoned by the French king whose crown she had won, Joan was tried by a church court as a heretic and witch and was burned at the stake. It is believed that Charles later had her name cleared of the heresy accusations to protect the legitimacy of his own reign. Thirty years after Joan's death, the Pope decided she had not been guilty of any religious crime; and she was finally canonized as a saint herself in 1920 for her conviction that she followed divine orders. One of the fascinating and useful things about western culture may be the inclination, no matter how delayed, for self-criticism and self-correction, especially as some cultures insist on tradition and being wrong despite various kinds of arguments and evidence.
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